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2020 Summer Olympics

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The 2020 Summer Olympics (Japanese: 2020年夏季オリンピック, Hepburn: Nisen Nijū-nen Kaki Orinpikku),[b] officially the Games of the XXXII Olympiad[c] and commonly known as Tokyo 2020 (Tōkyō Nisen Nijū), are an upcoming international multi-sport event to be held in Tokyo, Japan. These Games were originally scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the International Olympic Committee and the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced on 24 March 2020 that the Games would be delayed to 2021, and held no later than summer 2021. The Games will still be publicly branded and marketed as Tokyo 2020, even with the change in scheduling.

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 7 September 2013.[1] This is planned to be the second time that Japan, and specifically Tokyo has hosted the Summer Olympic Games, the first being in 1964, making it the first city in Asia to host the summer Games twice. Overall, these would be the fourth Olympic Games to be held in Japan, which also hosted the Winter Olympics in 1972 (Sapporo) and 1998 (Nagano). The 2020 Games would be the second of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, the first being the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang County, South Korea, and the next being the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

These Games are planned to see the introduction of new and additional competitions at the Summer Olympics, including 3×3 basketball, freestyle BMX, and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow the host organizing committee to add sports to the Olympic programme to augment the permanent core Olympic events, these Games are scheduled to see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, as well as the return of baseball and softball for the first time since 2008.

Bidding process

Tokyo, Istanbul, and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar) were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn.

Host city selection

The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority.

2020 Summer Olympics host city election[2]
City NOC name Round 1 Runoff Round 2
Tokyo  Japan 42 60
Istanbul  Turkey 26 49 36
Madrid  Spain 26 45

Development and preparation

New National Stadium

Ariake Arena

Aquatics Centre

Yokohama Stadium – Baseball, softball

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government set aside a fund of JP¥400 billion (over 3.67 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda and Narita airports by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost ¥400 billion and would be funded primarily by private investors, but East Japan Railway Company (East JR) is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport.[3] Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area.[4] There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.[5]

The Tokyo Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori.[6] Olympic and Paralympic Minister Seiko Hashimoto is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government.[7]

Impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic and postponement

In 2020, the coronavirus pandemic raised concerns regarding its potential impact on athletes and visitors to the Olympic Games.[8] Unlike the case of Zika virus during the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics, SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted between humans, posing tougher challenges for the Tokyo organizers to counteract the infectious disease and host a safe and secure games.[8] In a February 2020 interview with City A.M., the Conservative London mayoral candidate Shaun Bailey argued that London would be able to host the Olympic Games at the former London 2012 Olympic venues, should the Games need to be moved due to the coronavirus outbreak.[9] Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike criticized Bailey’s comment as inappropriate.[10] On 3 March 2020, an IOC spokesman stated that the Games would go ahead as planned,[11] and on 18 March the IOC repeated its opposition to a delay or cancellation.[12][13]

Three countries, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom, said they would withdraw from the Games if they were not postponed by a year.[14][15] On 23 March, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stated that he would support a proposed postponement, citing that ensuring athlete safety was “paramount”.[16] That same day, veteran IOC member and former vice president Dick Pound told USA Today that he expected the Games to be postponed.[17]

On 24 March, the IOC and the organising committee announced that the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics would be “rescheduled to a date beyond 2020 but not later than summer 2021”. They stated that the Games “could stand as a beacon of hope to the world during these troubled times and that the Olympic flame could become the light at the end of the tunnel in which the world finds itself at present.”[18] Prime Minister Abe stated that IOC president Thomas Bach “responded with 100% agreement” to his proposal to delay the Games. For continuity and marketing purposes, the Games will still be branded as Tokyo 2020, despite the change in scheduling. Although several Olympics have been outright cancelled due to world wars, including the 1940 Summer Olympics (which were originally awarded to Tokyo, moved to Helsinki after the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, and ultimately called off due to the wider onset of World War II), this marks the first Olympics to ever be postponed to a later date instead.[19][20][21]

Venues and infrastructure

In February 2012, it was announced that the National Stadium in Tokyo, the central venue for the 1964 Summer Olympics, would undergo a ¥100 billion renovation for the 2019 Rugby World Cup and the 2020 Olympics.[22] In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that it would take bids for proposed designs. Of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the project, which would replace the stadium with a new, 80,000-seat stadium. The stadium faced criticism over its design (which was compared to a bicycle helmet, and judged as clashing with the surrounding Meiji Shrine) and its costs, even with attempts to revise and “optimise” the design.[23]

In June 2015, the government announced that as a further cost-savings measure, it would reduce the new stadium’s permanent capacity to 65,000 in its athletics configuration (although with the option to add up to 15,000 temporary seats for football).[24][25] The government also scrapped plans to build a retractable roof.[26] Due to public outcry over the increasing costs of the stadium (which reached ¥252 billion), the government ultimately chose to scrap the Zaha Hadid design entirely, and chose a new design by Japanese architect Kengo Kuma. Inspired by traditional temples and having a lower profile, Kuma’s design has a budget of ¥149 billion. Due to the changes in plans, the new stadium would not be completed in time for the Rugby World Cup as originally planned.[27]

In October 2018, the Board of Audit issued a report stating that the total cost of the venues could exceed US$25 billion.[28]

Of the 33 competition venues in Tokyo, 28 are within 8 kilometers (4.97 miles) of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed.[29] On 16 October 2019, the IOC announced that there were plans to re-locate the marathon and racewalking events to Sapporo due to heat concerns.[30] The plans were made official on 1 November 2019 after Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike accepted the IOC’s decision, despite her belief that the events should have remained in Tokyo.[31]

Heritage Zone

Seven venues for nine sports are located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Some of these venues were originally constructed for the 1964 Summer Olympics.

Venue Events Capacity Status
New National Stadium Opening and closing ceremonies 68,000 Completed[32]
Athletics (track and field)
Football (women’s final)
Yoyogi National Gymnasium Handball 13,291 Existing
Ryōgoku Kokugikan Boxing 11,098 Existing
Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium Table tennis 10,000 Existing
Nippon Budokan Judo 14,471 Existing
Karate
Tokyo International Forum Weightlifting 5,012 Existing
Musashinonomori Park[33] Road cycling (start road races) Temporary

Tokyo Bay Zone

There are 13 venues planned for 15 sports located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake, Odaiba and the surrounding artificial islands.

Venue Events Capacity Status
Kasai Rinkai Park Canoeing (slalom) 8,000 Ready, built for the games
Oi Hockey Stadium Field hockey 15,000 Under construction[34]
Tokyo Aquatics Centre Aquatics (swimming, diving, artistic swimming) 15,000 Under construction
Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming Center Water polo[35] 3,635 Existing
Yumenoshima Park Archery 7,000 Under construction[36]
Ariake Arena Volleyball 12,000 Ready, built for the games
Olympic BMX Course BMX cycling 6,000 Under construction
Skateboarding
Ariake Gymnastics Centre Gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, trampoline) 10,000 Temporary
Ariake Coliseum Tennis 20,000 = 10,000 centre court; 5,000 court 1; 3,000 court 2; 2,000 match courts (8×250) Existing, renovated
Odaiba Marine Park Triathlon 5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route Existing with temporary stands
Aquatics (marathon swimming)
Shiokaze Park Beach volleyball 12,000 Temporary
Central Breakwater and Sea Forest Waterway Equestrian (eventing) 20,000 Existing with temporary infrastructure
Rowing
Canoeing (sprint)
Aomi Urban Sports Venue 3×3 basketball 5,000 Temporary
Sport climbing

Outlying venues

Twelve venues for 16 sports are situated farther than 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the Olympic Village.

Venue Events Capacity Status
Camp Asaka Shooting 3,200 Existing, renovated
Musashino Forest Sports Plaza Modern pentathlon (fencing) 10,000 Ready, built for the games
Badminton[37]
Tokyo Stadium Football (opening round matches) 49,970[38] Existing
Modern pentathlon (excluding fencing)
Rugby sevens
Saitama Super Arena Basketball 22,000[39] Existing
Enoshima Sailing 10,000[40] Existing with temporary stands
Makuhari Messe Fencing 6,000 Existing with temporary stands
Taekwondo
Wrestling 8,000[41]
Baji Koen Equestrian (dressage, jumping)[42] 9,300 Existing with temporary stands
Kasumigaseki Country Club Golf 30,000[43][44] Existing with temporary stands
Izu Velodrome Track cycling 5,000[45] Existing, expanded
Izu Mountain Bike Course Mountain biking[45] 11,500 Existing
Yokohama Stadium Baseball 30,000[46] Existing
Softball
Fukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium Baseball (opening match) 30,000 Existing, renovated
Softball (opening match)[47]
Fuji International Speedway Road cycling
(finish road races, time trial)
22,000 Existing
Odori Park, Sapporo Athletics (Marathon and Race Walking) 17,300[48] Existing

Football venues

Venue Location Events Matches Capacity Status
International Stadium Yokohama[49] Yokohama Men’s and Women’s preliminaries and quarter-final, Women’s semi-final, Men’s final 10 70,000 Existing
Tokyo Stadium Tokyo Men’s and Women’s opening round 4 49,000 Existing
Saitama Stadium Saitama Men’s and Women’s preliminaries and quarter-final, Men’s semi-final and 3rd place play-off 11 62,000 Existing
Miyagi Stadium Sendai Men’s and Women’s preliminaries and quarter-final 10 49,000 Existing
Kashima Soccer Stadium Kashima Men’s and Women’s preliminaries, quarter-final and semi-final, Women’s 3rd place play-off 10 40,728 Existing
Sapporo Dome Sapporo Men’s and Women’s preliminaries 10 42,000 Existing
New National Stadium Tokyo Women’s final 2 60,012 Completed

Non-competition venues

The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower is scheduled to be used as the IBC/MPC complex.

Venue Events
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo IOC hotel
Harumi Futo Olympic Village
Tokyo Big Sight International Broadcast Center (IBC)
Media Press Center (MPC)

Security

In December 2018, the Japanese government chose to ban drones from flying over venues being used for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A ban was also imposed for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, which Japan also hosted.[50]

Volunteers

Applications for volunteering at the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games were accepted from 26 September 2018. By 18 January 2019, a total of 204,680 applications had been received by the Tokyo Organizing Committee.[51] Interviews to select the requisite number of volunteers began in February 2019, with training scheduled to take place in October 2019.[52] The volunteers at the venues are to be known as “Field Cast” and the volunteers in the city are to be known as “City Cast”. These names were chosen from a shortlist of four from an original 150 pairs of names; the other three shortlisted names were “Shining Blue” & “Shining Blue Tokyo”, “Games Anchor” & “City Anchor”, and “Games Force” & “City Force”. The names were chosen by the people who had applied to be volunteers at the Games.[53]

Medals

In February 2017, the Tokyo Organizing Committee announced an electronics recycling program in partnership with Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and NTT Docomo, soliciting donations of electronics (such as mobile phones) to be reclaimed as materials for the medals. Aiming to collect 8 tonnes of metals to produce the medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, collection boxes were deployed at public locations and NTT Docomo retail shops in April 2017.[54][55] A design competition for the medals launched in December of the same year.[56]

In May 2018, the organizing committee reported that they had obtained half the required 2,700 kilograms of bronze, but that they were struggling to obtain the required amount of silver; although bronze and silver medals purely utilize their respective materials, IOC requirements mandate that gold medals utilize silver as a base.[57] The collection of bronze was completed in November 2018, with the remainder estimated to have been completed by March 2019.[58]

On 24 July 2019, the designs of the medals were unveiled.[59][60] The medals for the Olympic and Paralympic Games were designed by Junichi Kawanishi following a nationwide competition.[61]

Torch relay

The slogan of the 2020 Summer Olympics torch relay is “Hope Lights Our Way”.[62][63]

As determined by an IOC ruling in 2009 that banned international torch relays for any future Olympic Games,[64] the 2020 Summer Olympics torch is scheduled to only visit the two countries of Greece and the host nation Japan. The first phase of the relay began on 12 March 2020 with the traditional flame lighting ceremony at the Temple of Hera in Olympia, Greece. The torch then travelled to Athens, where the Greek leg of the relay culminated in a handover ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium on 19 March, during which the torch was transferred to the Japanese contingent.[62] The flame was placed inside a special lantern and transported from Athens International Airport on a chartered flight to Higashimatsushima in Japan. The torch was then expected to begin the second phase of its journey on 20 March, as it travels for one week around the three most affected areas of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami—Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima—where it would go on display under the heading “Flame of Recovery”. After leaving Naraha on 26 March, the torch would commence its main relay around Japan, incorporating all 47 prefectural capitals.[63] The relay is scheduled to end at Tokyo’s New National Stadium, where the torch is to be used to light the Olympic cauldron at the finale of the 2020 Summer Olympics opening ceremony.[65]

Ticketing

The opening ceremony tickets are expected to range from ¥12,000–300,000, with a maximum price of ¥130,000 for the finals of athletics.[66] The average price of all the Olympic tickets is ¥7,700. Half of the tickets are to be sold for up to ¥8,000. A symbolic ticket price of ¥2,020 is expected for families, groups resident in Japan and in conjunction with a school programme. Tickets are to be sold through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail order to Japanese addresses through the Internet.[67] International guests will need to visit Japan during the sales period or arrange for tickets through a third party, such as a travel agent.[68]

The Games

Sports

The official programme for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC executive board on 9 June 2017. The president of the IOC, Thomas Bach, stated that the goal for the Tokyo Summer Olympics is to make them more “youthful” and “urban”, and to increase the number of female participants.[69][70]

The Games are scheduled to feature 339 events in 33 different sports, encompassing 50 disciplines. Alongside the five new sports that are expected be introduced in Tokyo, fifteen new events within existing sports are planned as well, including 3×3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, and new mixed events in several sports.

In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Artistic swimming (2)
    • Diving (8)
    • Swimming (37)
    • Water polo (2)
  • Archery (5)
  • Athletics (48)
  • Badminton (5)
  • Baseball
    • Baseball (1)
    • Softball (1)
  • Basketball
    • Basketball (2)
    • 3×3 basketball (2)
  • Boxing (13)
  • Canoeing
    • Slalom (4)
    • Sprint (12)
  • Cycling
    • BMX freestyle (2)
    • BMX racing (2)
    • Mountain biking (2)
    • Road cycling (4)
    • Track cycling (12)
  • Equestrian
    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • Fencing (12)
  • Field hockey (2)
  • Football (2)
  • Golf (2)
  • Gymnastics
    • Artistic (14)
    • Rhythmic (2)
    • Trampoline (2)
  • Handball (2)
  • Judo (15)
  • Karate
    • Kata (2)
    • Kumite (6)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (14)
  • Rugby sevens (2)
  • Sailing (10)
  • Shooting (15)
  • Skateboarding (4)
  • Sport climbing (2)
  • Surfing (2)
  • Table tennis (5)
  • Taekwondo (8)
  • Tennis (5)
  • Triathlon (3)
  • Volleyball
    • Volleyball (2)
    • Beach volleyball (2)
  • Weightlifting (14)
  • Wrestling
    • Freestyle (12)
    • Greco-Roman (6)
New sports

As part of a goal to control costs and ensure that the Olympics remain “relevant to sports fans of all generations”, the IOC assessed the 26 sports contested at the 2012 Olympics, with the remit of dropping one sport and thus retaining 25 “core” sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. This move would bring the total number of sports to 27, one less than the requirement of 28 for the 2020 Olympics programme, thus leaving a single vacancy that the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports as well as the sport that had been dropped from the 2012 Olympics programme.

On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the “core” programme for the 2020 Games; this was a surprising decision to news outlets given that wrestling is from the ancient Olympic Games and was included in the original programme for the modern Games. The New York Times felt that the decision was based on the shortage of well-known talent and the absence of women’s events in the sport.[71][72][73] Wrestling was duly added to the shortlist of applicants for inclusion in the 2020 Games, alongside the seven new sports that were put forward for consideration.[71]

On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three of the eight sports under consideration had made the final shortlist: baseball/softball, squash and wrestling.[74] The other five sports were rejected at this point: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu.[75] On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, wrestling was chosen to be included in the Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball and squash received 24 votes and 22 votes respectively.[76]

Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to use an “event-based” programme rather than a “sport-based” programme, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed to allow sports that are popular in the host country to be added to the programme, in order to improve local interest.[77] As a result of these changes, a list of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of: baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu.[78] On 28 September 2015, the organizers submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding.[79] These five new sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and are to be included in the sports programme for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33.[80][81]

Test events

A total of 56 test events are scheduled to take place in the run-up to the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Two of the events were held in late 2018, but the main test event schedule commenced in June 2019 and is due to be completed in May 2020, prior to the start of the Olympics. Several of the events are incorporated into pre-existing championships, but some have been newly created specifically to serve as Olympic test events for the 2020 Summer Games.[82][83]

It was announced in February 2019 that the test events would be branded under the banner “Ready, Steady, Tokyo”. The Tokyo Organizing Committee is responsible for 22 of the test events, with the remaining events being arranged by national and international sports federations. The first test event was World Sailing’s World Cup Series held at Enoshima in September 2018, and the last scheduled event is the Tokyo Challenge Track Meet due to take place at the Olympic Stadium in May 2020.[84]

Cultural festival and other sports

A related cultural festival, dubbed the Nippon Festival, was initially announced in late 2019 and is expected to feature art and performances that are modern yet tied to Japanese culture, including a hybrid kabuki-opera production.[85] On 5 February 2020, the Japan Sumo Association announced that it would participate in the Nippon Festival and host a special two-day exhibition sumo tournament at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan on 12 and 13 August, just after the conclusion of the Olympic Games but before the Paralympic Games.[86] The exhibition tournament’s length and format is expected to be significantly different than sumo’s traditional 15-day tournaments (which are held six times a year) and there is planned to be simultaneous commentary in English and Japanese to help explain to visitors professional sumo’s customs and traditions, which are deeply rooted in the Shinto religion.[87][88]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Due to the disputed status of its official name, Macedonia has competed in every Summer and Winter Games since its Olympic debut in 1996 using the provisional name “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”. The naming disputes with Greece ended in 2018 with the signing of the Prespa agreement, and the country was officially renamed North Macedonia in February 2019. The new name was immediately recognized by the IOC, although the Olympic Committee of North Macedonia (NMOC) was not officially adopted until February 2020. The NMOC sent a delegation to the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics in January 2020, but the Tokyo Games would be North Macedonia’s first appearance at the Summer Olympics under its new name.[89]

On 9 December 2019, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned Russia from all international sport for a period of four years, after the Russian government was found to have tampered with lab data that it provided to WADA in January 2019 as a condition of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency being reinstated. As a result of the ban, WADA plans to allow individually cleared Russian athletes to take part in the 2020 Summer Olympics under a neutral banner, as instigated at the 2018 Winter Olympics, but they are not be permitted to compete in team sports. The title of the neutral banner has yet to be determined; WADA Compliance Review Committee head Jonathan Taylor stated that the IOC would not be able to use “Olympic Athletes from Russia” (OAR) as it did in 2018, emphasizing that neutral athletes cannot be portrayed as representing a specific country.[90][91][92] Russia later filed an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) against the WADA decision.[93]

As of 12 March 2020, the following 153 National Olympic Committees have qualified (other than through universality places in athletics and swimming, under which all 206 NOCs may send competitors regardless of qualification).

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Albania
  •  Algeria
  •  American Samoa
  •  Andorra
  •  Angola
  •  Argentina
  •  Armenia
  •  Australia
  •  Austria
  •  Azerbaijan
  •  Bahamas
  •  Bahrain
  •  Bangladesh
  •  Barbados
  •  Belarus
  •  Belgium
  •  Benin
  •  Bermuda
  •  Bhutan
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  •  Botswana
  •  Brazil
  •  British Virgin Islands
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Burkina Faso
  •  Burundi
  •  Cameroon
  •  Canada
  •  Cayman Islands
  •  Chad
  •  Chile
  •  China
  •  Colombia
  •  Cook Islands
  •  Costa Rica
  •  Croatia
  •  Cuba
  •  Cyprus
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Democratic Republic of the Congo
  •  Denmark
  •  Djibouti
  •  Dominica
  •  Dominican Republic
  •  Ecuador
  •  Egypt
  •  El Salvador
  •  Eritrea
  •  Estonia
  •  Ethiopia
  •  Fiji
  •  Finland
  •  France
  •  Gabon
  •  The Gambia
  •  Georgia
  •  Germany
  •  Ghana
  •  Great Britain
  •  Greece
  •  Grenada
  •  Guatemala
  •  Guyana
  •  Haiti
  •  Hong Kong
  •  Hungary
  •  Iceland
  •  India
  •  Indonesia
  •  Iran
  •  Ireland
  •  Israel
  •  Italy
  •  Ivory Coast
  •  Jamaica
  •  Japan (host)
  •  Jordan
  •  Kazakhstan
  •  Kenya
  •  Kosovo
  •  Kuwait
  •  Kyrgyzstan
  •  Latvia
  •  Lebanon
  •  Lesotho
  •  Liberia
  •  Libya
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Lithuania
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malaysia
  •  Mali
  •  Mauritius
  •  Mexico
  •  Moldova
  •  Mongolia
  •  Morocco
  •  Mozambique
  •  Namibia
  •  Netherlands
  •  New Zealand
  •  Niger
  •  Nigeria
  •  North Korea
  •  North Macedonia
  •  Norway
  •  Pakistan
  •  Panama
  •  Papua New Guinea
  •  Paraguay
  •  Peru
  •  Philippines
  •  Poland
  •  Portugal
  •  Puerto Rico
  •  Qatar
  •  Romania
  •  Rwanda
  •  Samoa
  •  San Marino
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe
  •  Saudi Arabia
  •  Senegal
  •  Serbia
  •  Seychelles
  •  Singapore
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  South Africa
  •  South Korea
  •  Spain
  •  Suriname
  •  Sweden
  •  Switzerland
  •  Syria
  •  Chinese Taipei
  •  Tajikistan
  •  Tanzania
  •  Thailand
  •  Togo
  •  Tonga
  •  Trinidad and Tobago
  •  Tunisia
  •  Turkey
  •  Uganda
  •  Ukraine
  •  United States
  •  Uruguay
  •  Uzbekistan
  •  Venezuela
  •  Vietnam
  •  Zambia
  •  Zimbabwe

Calendar

This was the original schedule of 2020 Summer Olympics before it was postponed into 2021, and rescheduled dates have yet to be announced. The 2020 schedule by session was approved by the IOC Executive Board on 18 July 2018, with the exception of swimming, diving, and artistic swimming. A more detailed schedule by event was released on 16 April 2019, still omitting a detailed schedule for the boxing events.[94][95] A detailed boxing schedule was released in late 2019.[96]

All times and dates use Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
July/August 22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 1 1 1 1 1 5
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Artistic swimming 1 1 2
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 2 3 5 5 6 5 7 7 7 1 48
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 1 1 1 2 5
Baseball pictogram.svg Baseball 1 1
Basketball Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 1 1 4
3x3 basketball pictogram.svg 3×3 Basketball 2
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 2 1 1 1 4 4 13
Canoeing Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg Slalom 1 1 1 1 16
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Sprint 4 4 4
Cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Road cycling 1 1 2 22
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg Track cycling 1 2 1 2 2 1 3
Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg BMX 2 2
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg Mountain biking 1 1
Diving pictogram.svg Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian pictogram.svg Equestrian 1 1 2 1 1 6
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 12
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 1 1 2
Football pictogram.svg Football 1 1 2
Golf pictogram.svg Golf 1 1 2
Gymnastics Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Artistic 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 EG 18
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg Rhythmic 1 1
Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg Trampolining 1 1
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 1 1 2
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 15
Karate pictogram.svg Karate 3 3 2 8
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 2 4 4 4 14
Rugby sevens pictogram.svg Rugby sevens 1 1 2
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 2 2 2 2 2 10
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 15
Skateboarding pictogram.svg Skateboarding 1 1 1 1 4
Softball pictogram.svg Softball 1 1
Climbing pictogram.svg Sport climbing 1 1 2
Surfing pictogram.svg Surfing 2 2
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 1 1 37
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 1 1 1 1 1 5
Taekwondo pictogram.svg Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 1 1 3 5
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 1 1 1 3
Volleyball Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg Beach volleyball 1 1 4
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball 1 1
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 1 1 2
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 14
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 3 3 3 3 3 3 18
Daily medal events 11 18 21 22 23 17 22 19 26 22 24 17 28 22 34 13 339
Cumulative total 11 29 50 72 95 112 134 153 179 201 225 242 270 292 326 339
July/August 22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Total events

Event scheduling

Per the historical precedent of swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and figure skating at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, swimming finals are scheduled to be held in the morning to allow live primetime broadcasts in the Americas (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible; NBC agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on 7 May 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games,[97] and is also one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC).[98] Japanese broadcasters were said to have criticized the decision, as swimming is one of the most popular Olympic events in the country.[99][100]

Marketing

Miraitowa (left), the official mascot of the 2020 Summer Olympics, and Someity (right), the official mascot of the 2020 Summer Paralympics

The official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest, it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-colored checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to “express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan”.[101] The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium. The Games’ bid slogan is Discover Tomorrow (Japanese:

未来あしたをつかもう, romanized: Ashita o tsukamō). While ashita literally means ‘tomorrow’, it is intentionally spelled as mirai ‘future’.[102] The official slogan United by Emotion (Japanese: 感動かんどうで、わたしたちはひとつになる, romanized: Kandō de, watashi-tachi wa hitotsu ni naru) was unveiled on 17 February 2020.[103]

The official mascot of the 2020 Summer Olympics is Miraitowa, a figure with blue-checkered patterns inspired by the Games’ official emblem. Its fictional characteristics include the ability to teleport.[104] Created by Japanese artist Ryo Taniguchi, the mascots were selected from a competition process which took place in late 2017 and early 2018. A total of 2,042 candidate designs were submitted to the Tokyo Organizing Committee, which selected three pairs of unnamed mascot designs to present to Japanese elementary school students for the final decision.[105][106] The results of the selection were announced on 28 February 2018, and the mascots were named on 22 July 2018. Miraitowa is named after the Japanese words for “future” and “eternity”,[104] and Someity is named after someiyoshino, a type of cherry blossom.[107] Someity’s name also refers to the English phrase “so mighty”.[108] The mascots are expected to help finance the Tokyo Games through merchandising and licensing deals.[109]

Concerns and controversies

On 10 December 2018, the French financial crimes office began an investigation of Tsunekazu Takeda, the president of the Japanese Olympic Committee, about a 2013 scheme to obtain votes from International Olympic Committee (IOC) members from Africa in support of Tokyo as host for the 2020 Olympics instead of Istanbul or Madrid.[110][111]

South Korea asked the International Olympic Committee to ban the Japanese Rising Sun Flag from the 2020 Summer Olympics,[112] because the flag is a symbol of Japan’s imperialist past and recalls “historic scars and pain” for people of Korea just as the swastika “reminds Europeans of the nightmare of World War II”.[113][114]

Russian and South Korean officials took issue with a map of the torch relay on the Games’ official website, which depicted the disputed Liancourt Rocks (territory governed by South Korea) and Kuril Islands (territory governed by Russia since 1945) as part of Japan.[115]

The Olympics torch relay is planned to begin in Fukushima, the site of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster,[116] the Olympic baseball and softball matches are scheduled to be played at Fukushima Stadium, while some football matches are planned to be played in Rifu—an outskirt of Sendai, an area impacted by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. The hosting of events there have been promoted as a means of furthering recovery in the regions, with the Games as a whole sometimes being promoted as the “Recovery Olympics” (Fukkō Gorin (復興五輪)). The organization of events in these regions have faced concerns; the Fukushima area is considered safe by the World Health Organization and the United Nations, although scientific studies on the safety of Fukushima are currently in great dispute.[117] Some Tōhoku residents have criticized the decision to use the region as a host site, arguing that preparations for the Games had slowed recovery efforts, and that the region was losing workers to projects associated with the Games.[118]

Broadcasting

Sony and Panasonic are partnering with NHK to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution television, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Olympics.[119][120] Italian broadcaster RAI announced an intent to deploy 8K broadcasting for the Games.[121]

In the United States, the 2020 Summer Olympics are scheduled to be broadcast by NBCUniversal properties, as part of a US$4.38 billion agreement that began at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.[122]

In Europe, this would be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC’s exclusive pan-European rights deal with Eurosport, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and is planned to run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Summer Olympics cover almost all of Europe, excluding Russia due to a pre-existing deal with a marketer through 2024.[123] Eurosport plans to sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory and other Discovery Inc.-owned channels. In the United Kingdom, these would be the last Games whose rights are primarily owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that is scheduled to carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Eurosport holds exclusive pay television rights.[124][125][126] In France, these are also the last Games whose rights are primarily owned by France Télévisions. Eurosport is scheduled to debut as pay television rightsholder, after Canal+ elected to sell its pay television rights due to cost-savings measures. France Télévisions plan to sub-license the 2022 and 2024 Games from Eurosport.[127]

Telecom company NTT Docomo signed a deal with Finland’s Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Olympics.[128][129]

In Canada, they are scheduled to be shown on CBC/Radio-Canada, Sportsnet, TSN and TLN.[130][131][132]

The Games are scheduled to be aired via Seven Network in Australia.[133]

Notes

  • Tokyo 2020
  • Tokyo 2020 (IOC)
  • Japanese Olympic Committee
Preceded by
Rio de Janeiro
Summer Olympic Games
Tokyo

XXXII Olympiad (2020)
Succeeded by
Paris


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